Orang-orang yang disebut Sahabat

Katanya menulis itu butuh latihan yang sering. Kemampuan menulis tidak lahir begitu saja, meskipun ada beberapa orang yang lihai menulis meski tidak belajar secara ekstensif. Tulisan kali ini bertema sahabat, atau orang yang disebut sahabat. Orang-orang seperti inilah yang kerap kali kita lupa, kita terkadang selalu mencari yang serupa dengan kita. Kita cenderung mencari yang hobinya sama, yang memiliki pemikiran sama, padahal ada juga orang-orang yang sejatinya mirip dengan kita, hanya saja kita tidak berkomunikasi dengan mereka.

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Berlian itu Mahal

Sebenarnya saya sedang menulis tentang Wisuda. Sudah seminggu saya resmi memegang gelar M.T.I, tetapi rasanya tidak ada yang istimewa. Dari dulu saya sangat percaya bahwa berlian itu mahal, dan tidak semua orang mampu untuk memilikinya. Dari wisuda hingga berlian, memangnya apa hubungannya sih?

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Parliamentary Debate

Debate has their own format. Each format, or we call parliament, has their own characteristic such as number of people debating and number of team involved. There are 3 commonly-used debating format in indonesia, they are Asian Parliamentaryand British Parliamentary. Other formats that is not frequently used are Australasian Parliamentary, Crossfire and American Parliamentary. Let’s discuss them in this chapter:
 
Asian Parliamentary
In Asian Parliamentary format, there are two teams debating: Affirmative, or Government—supporting the motion, and Negative, or Opposition—opposing the motion. The first speaker comes from the affirmative team, followed by the negative, until the 3rd speaker. These six speeches are called substantial speeches, 7 minutes each. After the last speaker from the negative team spoke, the reply speech to sum up the debate comes from the negative first. So affirmative team starts and ends the debate. The reply speeches are 5 minutes each.

 

British Parliamentary
In British Parliamentary, the teams are divided into the “government” – affirmative and “opposition” – negative bench. The first two teams, also called the opening half start the debate, the closing half have to extend the debate on a different level. So the teams are called Opening Government or 1stAffirmative, Opening Opposition or 1st Negative, Closing Government, or 2nd Affirmative, and Closing Opposition or 2ndNegative. The debate is started by the 1st speaker of the Opening Government, then from Opening Opposition, until the last speaker. So there are 8 substantial speeches, 7 minutes each. There is no reply speech in this format.
Australs Parliamantary
This debate has same composition as Asian, but the difference is we can’t send our POI to the other team. So we put it on our rebuttals, and that’s the debate going. I think this is would make the adjs gone for sleep, since It has no POI.
Signing off~ See ya on the next model.

 

Case Building

Plan before doing: Like making a blueprint while building a house, in any debate we need to plan before delivering our speech. Then, how important is doing case building? Maybe it can be known by how much money that we need to spend for architects and contractor in any house-building projects.

What are the contents of casebuild?
Everything we need, literally. Case building, you will need to know what you are going to talk about, including your signposts, tipping points and reasons.

Case building will map on key things that we would deliver in a debate, thus making it very important. As important as the debate itself. Now we are going to discuss on key things you need in building your case.


How to write things during case building?

After we know what we are going to talk about and all the details, we are going to wrote keynotes on our papers. Usually, people will write all chronological of their speech to make them easier to keynoting their speech. For example:
THW Execute Corruptors
       Justification: Corruptors has taken people’s right
o  People guilty for Human Rights Violations do not deserve Human Rights
o  Corruption equals to life
§  Corruptor corrupts the people’s life quality
§  How? They corrupts logistics and standard of construction quality
§  Example: the corruption of food supplies and amount of cement in construction
§  Result: food shortage, inflations, below standard building quality. Thus, degradation ofcitizens’ quality of life
§  Corruptors degrades the job of government as moral agent
       Detterence
o  Giving fear to all corruptors to die
o  Showing the message on how big the crime corruptor has
o  Example: All countries applying death penalty to corruptors don’t show recent corruption issue: China, Thailand, Belarus, Russia and South Korea
This is an example on what you write in your paper during case building. It would be vary, as you like it. Some people might have to wrote a more detailed notes, while some others might need to write only the general keypoints. It is totally on how you write it. But even you wrote a little amount of handwriting, you still need to contruct, at least in your mind, all features of your speech
Now, here’s some tips and tricks you can use for finding ideas, of course with simple motions to be understood:

Brainstorm

Brainstorm is one of the most important to think and seek out possible ideas. One of the way to do brainstorming is to make a word map.
Look at this example:
Motion: Cats makes better pets than dogs
STEP 1 :    starting from one keyword, in this case CAT, think of as many words as possible and write them around the keyword. Now write as many word as you can that relate too those words, whatever comes in mind. Don’t try to organize your thoughts just yet (it would slow you down)
STEP 2 :    look at the word map. Do some of the words listed suggest reasons why a cat would make better pets than dogs? Or vice versa? Write down all the reasons that you think of.
Here are the reasons we found in our example of word map for why “Cats makes better pets than dogs”:
1.   Cats catch mice
2.   Cats are cheaper than dogs
3.   Cats sleeps a lot
4.   Cats have four legs
5.   Cats are cute, dogs don’t
6.   Cats are clean, dogs are dirty
7.   Cats are quiet, dogs are noisy
STEP 3 :    after you have written down many reasons, it is time to prioritize the reasons, that is, to put the reasons in order from the most important to the least important. Here are example of sorted reasons, each person may have various opinion on which is the most important.
1.   Cats are cute, dogs don’t
2.   Cats are clean, dogs are dirty
3.   Cats are quiet, dogs are noisy
4.   Cats are cheaper than dogs
5.   [minor] Cats catch mice
6.   [doesn’t show cats better]Cats have four legs
7.   [contradiction]Cats sleeps a lot
Connecting Dots
During a debate, sometimes people hard to seek for some relevant ideas. Here’s other tips to make it easier. Connecting Dots is similar like Brainstorming, but a bit different, it would help you to organize your issue vs. goal cases more fluently.
Look at this example:
Motion: That Junk Food is not Healthy

STEP 1: Now we start from the keyword “Junk Food” and “Healthy”. Similar like brainstorming, we are going to look for as many words related to those keywords.
STEP 2: Once you are done, look at your word map. You will find out that several of oppositing keywords are correlated. For example in this case “That Junk food is not Healthy” you will have to find words which are contradicts each other (of course when you are dealing with motions like “This House Believe That Democracy is prerequisite of Sustainable Development” you have to find words which are SUPPORTING between ‘Democracy’ and ‘Sustainable Development’).
STEP 3:  Same as Brainstorming, you’ll next will have to written down the relation between those words, make it as your reason and prioritize them. Trust me, it works.
After know several techniques in constructing your case, there are also tricks to keep remind u to make one perfect argument. Perfect as in, it contains one solid idea.
The Swiss Knife: Debating Template
On making the flow of their speech, people usually have their own style. Now we would discuss about how to map one idea into one solid argument.
Usually debaters uses the term AREL to signifies their way of telling one solid argument. This method is called template. They already know points that are going to be told. So, most debaters will do this pattern called AREL:


Speech Organization

 

Create Your Stories!
Debating is not only about how you tell your arguments and throwing supports. You have to organize it to make others could easily understand your cases. You have to make it a systematic presentation of the cases. Study the construction of this house. What is the resolution? How many points are there?
 
Know-How: Sign-Posting
In debate, reasons are usually given names to make it easy for debaters to refer to, and for judges to remember. These names are called signpost. A signpost should be short and easy to be remembered. For example:
Soccer is a better sport than baseball
1.       The first point is about simplicity. Soccer is much easier than baseball. Baseball rules takes hour to explain, and you need bat, glove and baseball diamonds to play. Soccer rules are easy, and all you need is only ball and field.
2.       Secondly, about excitement. Soccer is more exciting than baseball. In baseball, 90% of the time the players are just standing around waiting. Soccer has action all the time.
3.       Lastly, about cost. Soccer tickets are much cheaper than baseball tickets. In this city, the price of a ticket to watch a baseball games are 3 times more expensive than the tickets of soccer game.
Know-How: Macro and Micro Organization
In delivering arguments, there are 3 main parts:
Introduction, to introduce the background of your opinion, the points, your arguments and support, lastly, conclusion, the closing of your speech.
 
DEBATE APPLICATION: Public Speaking Flow
Debate and Public Speaking are identical. Both of them have the same purpose, to convince the audiences (and adjudicators)!
It is really important to make people float off your flow of speech.
Here are several tips of it:
  •       Tidiness and Structure

 

No, this is not about keeping your boarding house’s room tidy. This is about how being tidy and structured HELPS, like hell, A LOT.
This is a very basic matter, I believe, but everyone keeps on forgetting it for the sake of better logic and argumentation. What I meant by being tidy as a speaker is that you make sure that every argument that you throw out is all ordered, listed, numbered, or whatever your way of making it more understandable for the adjudicators.
A tidiness would lead to an easy-to-follow manner. Now you couldn’t really blame those adjudicators for giving her a very high score, right? Lots of adjudicators are really concerned about this, since they don’t only listen to you but to the other speakers, making their job in assessing logic hard enough without the additional burden of having to clear up the messy order of your speech. Make your speech flow, not jump, from one point to another..

  •        Truism

 

Now I know I might get some funny responses when said, “Be truistic”, but believe it or not this is what best speakers did. Often as the government, setting things up so it really favors you is not exactly a bad idea after all.
For example, when we are talking about banning cell phones, surely, this is not an easy motion for a government, you can start by saying something BIG, GENERAL and BOLD first, which can not be refutable, “how basically cell phones are the source of violations (e.g: cheating students, porns even when-driving-usage)” now this is actually very philosophy, and further more this thing is almost unrefutable. This called basic premises, an unrebuttable premise which would support your arguments, even it is so controversial to the max!
  • Delivery

 

This might sound reallyreally simple but believe me it separates good debaters from great debaters. These people speak with conviction, as if their lives are at stake in fact. Aside from the conviction, they’re also flawless in terms of fluency, so none of that “Umm…” or “Err…” anymore. This actually relates back to the first point, in how they have structured their speech in a way that they know exactly what to say and in what order, automatically preventing stuttering from happening. One example of this is how Ateneo practices debate; they practice a motion by first discussing over it, which means they actually already know what exactly the opposing side is going to bring when they debate. This is where they practice delivery and conviction. Flawlessness makes you look cool, but more importantly it makes adjudicators see that you know what you’re talking about.

 

Debate for Newbie

Case 1 : Opinion

Everyone have opinions! For example, I live in Jakarta and believe that Jakarta is the Best Town in Indonesia. What do you think? Do you agree? Or disagree?

Other simple examples are arguing couples that always think he/she was true, or could be, opinion war in Debate Forum!!

MODELS: Types of Opinions
Opinions are the starting point of discussion or Debate. Just as Roof of a Building can have many types, forms and shapes, Opinions also have different types. Opinions usually fall into three main 
types: Value, Policy and Fact.

Value (X is better than Y)
Opinions of value states one thing is better/worse than another.
Policy (X should do Y)
Opinions of policy states that some form of Authority (Government, Companies, School Management or Person) should do something
Fact (X was/is/will be Y)
Opinions of fact states that something is true, was true or will be true

Case 2 : Arguments

Everyone have opinion. But opinion does not stand by themselves! Opinions are based on reasons which, especially in debate, have to be delivered. Without explaining the reasons for an opinion, communication breaks down and become as childish as fighting children. When explaining, the key point is to provide reasons that other people find it reasonable and convincing.
So, what are strong reasons??!! As the analogy of House, a roof needs walls and pillars, or else, it will fall down. Similarly, an opinion needs reasons, or it will fall. Reasons are like walls and pillars. Some pillars and walls might hold up the roof well, while others might be weak. Similarly, reasons can be strong or weak.
Next topic would be “Were you convinced by those reasons?”. Not all reasons that might pop in your mind could be convincing. Sometimes the stated reasons could be lame. Then, which reasons make you convinced? Which reasons were not at all? In debate, your job is to find convincing reasons to make judges and audiences agree with your opinion, surely, by providing reasonable explanations. It is judge’s job to decide which team’s explanations are most convincing and thus wins the debate. Then, your reason in debate have to be, simply, good!
Then what are good reasons? There are at least 3 indispensable qualities of good reasons to convince people:
            A strong reason have to logically support the opinion (relevant)
            A strong reason have to be specific and state the idea clearly (effective)
            A strong reason have to be convincing to a majority of people (populist)
Supporting a Reason :
We have learned that opinions requires Strong Reasons to be a good opinion. These reasons have to be suppoted to keep stand strong and supporting your opinion.
Once opinion is given and the reasons that holding an opinion are clearly explained, those reasons have to be supported by Evidences. Evidence is a concrete foundation that supports Reasons, the Walls and Pillars. Evidence can be in the forms of Explanation, Example, Statistic or an Expert Opinion.

As we know that debating is clashes of opinions. To clash each other, opinions need something to attack the others opinion’s reasons. But we are not just going to compare each other and using reasons. We also need rebuttals to prove that other team’s reason is false.
In this chapter, we turn our attention to look critically on the construction of other side’s house. In debate, we must examine the construction work very closely and attack any construction errors or fundamental weaknesses.
Types of Rebuttals
There is always two sides of every story. For every opinion, there is an opposite opinion. For every reason to believe in an opinion, there is also a reason not to believe in it. To really understand an opinion on an issue, it is not enough to only see it from only one point of view. True understanding of an issue means to think about the opinion and the reason behind every existing point of view.
Rebuttals, which means to negate or deny something, is used in debate to tell why the opposing team’s point is either not true or not important. More specifically, a point can be refuted by saying that it’s not true, or that is not always true, which means there are several important exceptions. Or we can say, that is not necessarily true, which means there are some doubt about the supporting evidence.

If the point is not important, it may be unimportant because it has nothing to do with the resolution and thus not relevant, or maybe, a very small numerical difference and thus not significant, or finally, it maybe a very simple problem that is easy to solve.

NOTES: Keep in mind that these are terms of PROPER rebuttal. But to have a GOOD rebuttal, you will have to make two layers of rebuttals, which is “Why your idea won’t work?” and “Even if it is working, it’s wrong”.
Know-How: How to deliver a refutation
Signpost & Rephrase : Stating your refutations by saying their points
Their first point is about …. and they said that …
Example: Their first point is about care, which cats requires less care compared to dogs.
Negation
This is not true!/this point was untrue!/even if it is true, it is not important!
Example: That is not important!
Why
It can’t be true that … / the point was not necessarily true that …
Example: the whole point is about care which is not relevant with owning a pet
Rationale
There’s no connection between … / the reason that … / to solve it, do X instead of Y!
Example: The reason that we have a pet is to enjoy taking CARE of it!

Deputy’s Duty

A deputy should….

  • Actively participates in helping his/her 1st speaker. 
  • Willingly gives up argument that he/she though of. 
  • Does not give a damn about speaker tab.
  • Has faith in the inexhaustibility of arguments for a given debate. 

Deputies are like SPICE GIRLS

If a previous speaker spent a great deal of time asking for something, GIVE IT TO THEM.
Ex. “They never proved political will.”-previous speaker
THEN, prove political will
Danger: make sure it doesn’t look like you’re covering for the deficiencies of your first speaker. Make it seem as if you are giving the next, natural part of the case.

Deputies General Strategies

Example: TH supports the federalization of Iraq

  • If the opponents give a case that deals with both political and economic implications, respond with a case that deals with both.
  • If their complaint is something like, “they have to show us that local governments have the capability to raise money by themselves in a federalized state,” make sure YOU ANSWER THAT CHALLENGE
  • Come up with relevant arguments
    • Common sickness of 2ndspeakers: just coming up with peripheral arguments (“fringe benefits case”)
  • “But I did not shoot the deputy”
    • Deputies are oftentimes ignored by other debaters.
    • Prove the importance of anything you say. Why are you relevant? Why should the adjudicator remember this point?

Being Intuitive

  • Because response speakers often think “out of the box,” there is a propensity to give arguments that sound logical, but do not translate well to real life nuances.
  • What is logical is not always a valid argument.
  • Work with the REAL world

Example of Un-Intuitive Arguments

  • THBT the first world should support outsourcing
  • “Outsourcing is still beneficial for first world countries because now that third world countries do the ‘dirty jobs,’ laborers from the first world can focus on the burgeoning IT industries.”
  •      This sounds LOGICAL, but it is not realistic. Can a carpenter or assembly-line worker from Montana really learn how to program Linux or network computers? Maybe they can, but it will take 5 years, willingness to learn, access to instructional institutions, and the like. Work with the REAL WORLD.


 Second Speaker Swiss-Knife

  • Swiss knife: Handy arguments that, while they might not always work, at least give you something to say 
  1. 1.The message argument – what a certain policy implies to the int’l community/marginalized sectors
  2. 2.The balance argument – make sure its doesn’t parrot; it should be but heavily comparative between models 
  3. 3.The “new context” argument to break ties – argue post 9/11 scenario, the Lisbon agenda/info revolution, Greater societal tolerance or Post-modernity (for race/gender debates)
  4. 4.Analyzing new actors – Who else is involved? Prove why this other actor is important as well.
  5. 5.Establishing normative values and showing how your policy fulfills this 
  6. 6.On the ground analysis – “THIS is what happens in the real world.” 
  7. 7.Meta-argument: arguing for the argument

The End of Swiss Knife… Cheers. Signing off

Triangle Response

The triangle that unites speakers who are forced to make quick cases while trying to respond to the other side.

That is the point. When you as the LO, then you have to response the Prime Minister, and DPM would response you as well.
The thing is, how is it going?
Basically there are the outline that should be brought by Leader and Deputi. There are : 

  • LO
    • Model diagnosis
    • Counter-proposals
    • Instant-cases
  • Deputies
    • General disposition
    • General strategy
    • The Swiss Knife 

The main point of rebuttal is to PROVE the other side that they are wrong about their frame. And also, this type of phrase is not allowed in debate if you want to win the debate.

l“They do not solve the root cause of the problem, which is…”
l“The model does not consider ____” 

Why not??

  • There is almost never a root cause for a problem.
  • A model can’t be expected to solve anything.
  • Push debating / burden-pushing is SO LOW CLASS

And Also…

Don’t be a hypocrite! Debates are all about comparison. When you launch a rebuttal, make sure it doesn’t apply to you.

Don’t be afraid to concede certain arguments. If you can’t rebut an argument, just weigh its value against those of your arguments.


 Steps in LO : Model Diagnosis

  • Step 1 : Check for feasibility
  • Step 2 : Examine the parties that get affected
  • Step 3 : Based on your assesment of the model’s strenghts and weaknesses, formulate a line of clash.
State the clash explicitly. 
Next article would be Counter-Proposals and Deputy’s duty…
Stay tune…
Signing off. 

Training Guide to Debate in English

Hem. I already finished with the Training Guide. Now, I’ll let you be more comfortable than before. I’ll index it up in here and also in the side of the blog. No further delay…

Foreword
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Chapter Eight
Chapter Nine

Happy reading. Your enjoyment is feed for me. Then, I would be happy if you click the ads.

~Nisa Signing off

Chapter 9 : Manner

What is good manner? Unfortunately, there are very few convenient tests or tactics with manner. But that’s not to say that good manner can’t be taught and so it must be possible to describe it. I’d stress that there is no single definition of good manner. You can be loud or quiet, you can be funny or serious, and in some speeches you might do all those things. If you made up a list of the best debaters in the World, it would include people with range of styles. But that said, I think good manner is the right combination of three things; Persuasiveness, Credibility and Conviction.
Persuasiveness – Persuasiveness is really about making your message appealing to the audience. It incorporates all of the obvious things that people taught you at school, like; make eye contact, project your voice…. etc. But that’s like saying that driving a car is just a combination of turning a wheel and moving your head. It’s too simplistic and it sucks all of the art of out it.
The art is in the psychology of persuasion. For instance it’s vital that you understand the difference between intuitive and counter-intuitive arguments. Running a counter-intuitive argument is not bad per se, but it is harder. If you don’t acknowledge when you’re running a counter-intuitive argument you’ll never make it fly in the debate.
But how to you make a counter-intuitive argument work? Well you have explain it carefully and use strong analysis (discussed earlier) but from a manner point of view its crucial that you choose your language carefully, don’t overcomplicate things any more than is necessary, and most importantly lookat your adjudicators while you’re saying it. You have to learn to read the faces of your judges, and if it doesn’t look like they understand you, then you need to slow down and try again until they get it.
Credibility – Learning to have gravitas is difficult, because it’s linked to personal maturity, which you can’t rush, but in the meantime there are some ways to project the maximum amount of credibility that you’re currently capable of.
Rule number one is: Take it seriously, don’t undermine yourself.
Too often inexperienced speakers do everything possible to emphasis how inexperienced they are. That’s just counterproductive. Don’t ever talk your speech down while you’re giving it. That sounds obvious but its astonishing how many debaters will make an argument, and then they’ll say something like “that didn’t really make sense did it?” I’m not sure if it’s just a result of nerves, or some misguided attempt to be endearing, but either way you should stop it immediately.
Another classic example is deferring to your opposition. So an opponent will make some arguments that sound good about say economics, and the next speaker will say something stupid like “well I don’t know as much about economics as the last speaker, but I’ll have a go at rebutting her argument anyway”. This is a double hit – it weakens your credibility and it increases your opponents’ credibility!
I can’t stress enough how much damage this does to your credibility. It seems like a small thing, but it can be devastating. The reason is because talking yourself down can act as a subtle but powerful confirmation of any negative perception of you that an adjudicator might already be harbouring. This is especially true for ESL speakers and young female speakers. I wish it wasn’t like that, and of course many adjudicators are fair and unbiased in terms of manner, but significant proportion of them under the general principle that the older you are, the more credible you are, and that generally men are more credible than women.
NEVER talk down your speech, yourself or your ideas under any circumstances.
Broadly speaking, the higher up the tab you move (which increases the quality of your adjudicators) the less important those stereotypes are, but while there has been enormous improvement in the adjudication culture over the years, it’s still not perfect.
Rule number two is: Sound like you know what you’re talking about.
So that means one of two things – either actually know what you’re talking about, (by working hard on learning first principles as well as specific knowledge), or sound like you know what you’re talking about (the first is better). You can sound credible by avoiding simple mistakes – like make sure you get the names of things right – including pronunciation, and use then them confidently. If you’re not sure whether the name of the Chinese President is Hu Jin Tao or Wen Jao Bao, take a guess, but whichever you choose, say it confidently!
The only sure way to build up your credibility is to really know what you’re talking about, but that takes time. Meanwhile, focus on being confident, and remember that your adjudicators/opposition will rarely know anything about you – if you look confident, and sound confident, they’ll usually think you are confident!
Conviction – is probably the most under-rated facet of manner. Basically, if you don’t look like you care about the topic and you care about the arguments that you’re making, then why should anyone else care? Remember that adjudicators suffer from all the same things that you as debaters endure at tournaments – they’re tired, they can be bored, they can dislike the topics – if you don’t do everything you can to make the debate engaging and appealing then you can’t expect them to make much effort either.
Your manner should say “I’m here to persuade” not “I’m trying to win a debate”.
There is a fine like between sounding passionate and sounding ridiculous, but:
What’s the difference? The difference is everything. It’s the difference between high-school and university debating; and it’s the difference between being a good debater, and a truly great speaker.
Trying to persuade means engaging in the issues first and foremost, and again, you should be trying to project the image that you care about them and that you genuinely want other people to believe you – not just so that you and get another win for your team, but because its inherently important to you that people believe you on this issue.
Alternatively you can try and win the debate, and that means doing everything you can point out to the adjudicator why your team has scored more points, and everything you can to make your opponents look bad, instead of making them look wrong. Don’t tell adjudicators how to do their job, just focus on doing your job – being persuasive. The rest will take care of itself. 
So that means avoid referring to the fact that you’re having a debate – so don’t say high school-like things, such as “welcome to today’s debate, the topic is” or “As the first speaker it’s my job to explain the model…” just get to the issues as fast as you can. Use your context and set-up to explain the debate – that’s why you should contextualise at the start of first speaker’s speech. In team splits, talk about how your case expands logically; instead of it appearing like you’ve made some arbitrary distinction. Sound professional, sound sophisticated and sound genuinely interested.
Again these are subtle things and individual instances of “debate speak” (talking about the debate, instead of talking about the issues) don’t matter much, but cumulatively they have a big impact. They remind the adjudicator that this is just a contest, and the teams are just trying to score points. You can still win when that happens, but you’ll never really learn to “persuade”, instead you’ll just learn how to be better than other team – and sometimes that’s not saying very much.
People often want ask how to “put teams away”, in other words, how to win by large margins – and the key to scoring big wins against good teams, its manner. If you can master these three facets of manner, then when coupled with a strong case (which all good teams have by virtue of experience) you will able to smash opponents, not just beat them. But it takes patience, practice and perseverance!


[1] A counter-intuitive argument is something that people will initially find difficult to accept – something that seems to conflict with their gut feeling. See the example of an argument on p.11.
[2] See Jeremy Brier’s excellent article in Edition 4 of the MDR